By Jason S. Lee
Abstraction is one part of highbrow functioning. The research of abstraction permits super worthwhile insights into human intelligence. whereas this monograph exhibits that the power to imagine abstractly declines just a little with age, there are various variables opting for summary considering and its relation to intelligence over the life-span. This monograph defines abstraction from all angles of inspiration, contrasting it with high-order pondering and stereotyped considering; it discusses and evaluates exams of summary considering; and it offers new findings in sociological and mental study on abstraction.
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Additional resources for Abstraction and Aging: A Social Psychological Analysis
Students must "know, use, and integrate" information,which entails recognizing "basic ideas in a different context"; recognizing "relationships of concepts, facts, and principles to phenomena observed and data collected"; and "generalizing; hypothesizing; interpolating and extrapolating; reasoning by analogy, induction and deduction; and synthesizing and modeling" (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 1986b, pp. 9-10). 4. The Issue of Transfer: Do Cognitive Skills Generalize? We have seen that abstraction is a means of classification used to structure knowledge and solve problems, that it is taught in school from the lowest to the highest grade, that students learn to use abstraction across the disciplines, al1d that abstraction is deemed important to life beyond formal schooling.
A Synthesis of Views Lippmann's (1922) and Allport's (1954) classic writings on stereotyping consider together the issues dealt with more or less separately in the three perspectives outlined above. " How do we make sense of the unfamiliar? How do we introduce definiteness and distinction and consistency and stability into what James once described as "one great blooming, buzzing confusion" of stimuli? Lippmann (1922, p. 89) observed that "modem life is hurried and multifarious. There is neither time nor opportunity for intimate acquaintance.
In the beginning the infant is said to be "dependent exclusively on stimulus input," but with time his behavior becomes "guided by rules that enable him to combine perceptual information with information from memory" (Bowlby, 1980, p. 426). Goldstein (1963, p. viii) makes the same point, but with explicit reference to the concrete/abstract dimension: The infant "exists on the concrete level alone ... [having come] into the world as a very limited organism, particularly since his 28 2. " Goldstein (pp.
Abstraction and Aging: A Social Psychological Analysis by Jason S. Lee